THE CONTEXT OF KENYA VISION 2030
Kenya Vision 2030 is the new country’s development blueprint covering the period 2008 to 2030. It aims at making Kenya an industrialized state and providing high quality life for all its citizens by the year 2030. The Kenya Vision 2030 is to be implemented in successive five-year Medium
Term plans with the first such plan covering the period 2008 – 2012. For that reason the reader will find frequent references to projects and programmes scheduled for implementation between 2008 and 2012. Currently, a detailed 5-year development plan (2008-2012) is prepared under the coordination of the Ministry of Planning and National Development. After 2010 another five-year plan will be produced covering the period 2012 to 2017, and so on till 2030. The three pillars of the vision 2030 include economic, social and political pillars. Economic pillar is aimed at maintaining a sustained economic growth of 10% p.a. over the next 25 years, Social pillar is aimed at a just and cohesive society enjoying equitable social development in a clean and secure environment and Political pillar is an issue-based, people-centered, result-oriented, and accountable democratic political system. To achieve the vision 2030, the potentials and challenges to sustainable resource development in the Kenyan coast should be considered. The main economic activities in the coast province which should be improved include; agriculture, fishing, tourism, urbanization, trade and mining.
TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN THE KENYAN COAST
Tourism may be described as the phenomena and relationships arising from the interaction of tourists, business people, host governments and host communities in the process of attracting and hosting these tourists and other visitors. The Kenya coast attracts the majority of tourists to the country to enjoy the beaches, marine parks and reserves and easy access to nearby national parks. Tourists staying in coast hotels account for over 60 per cent of all hotel bed nights in the country.
There are six marine national parks/reserves along the Kenyan Coast located at: Kiunge, Malindi, Watamu, Mombasa, Kisite and Mpungutuni. In addition to these, there are several terrestrial parks/reserves in Coast Province at: Shimba Hills, Arabuko-Sokoke, Tsavo East, Dodori, Boni and Tana River. Other attractions include the museums at Fort Jesus in Mombasa and Lamu Fort in Lamu and several ruins and old settlements dating back to the seventh century scattered along the coastline. Because of these resources there are the following forms of tourism. These include:
1. Beach tourism
2. Cultural tourism; cultural attractions and cultural exchange programmes.of great interest here is a Chinese youth cruise ship which calls on our port once every four years
3. Conference tourism
4. Cruise tourism
5. Nature interest tourism-safaris into our fairly adjacent wildlife areas
6. Sport tourism- besides all other sporting activities, the coast is unique for scuba diving and sport fishing and other water sport activities such as water skiing
CHALLENGES AFFECTING TOURISM AT THE COAST
The security for both the local and visitors remains the single most important consideration in tourism. Having experienced insecurity impact to tourism during the infamous likoni clashes in 1997, the Nairobi bomb blast and the suicide bombing at Mombasa paradise hotel in 2002, and the threats of terrorists attack in 2003, the entire provincial security apparatus has been alert while the entire population is also conscious and alert in security matters. For a sustained tourism development, there is urgent need to ensure a peaceful and secure environment for foreign and domestic tourists.
Another reason for decline has been blamed on negative international publicity on the local security situation, decline in tourist infrastructure like roads, water and power competition from newly emerging destinations like South Africa.
Various measures should be taken to arrest this decline, including: strengthening of Kenya Tourism Board, employing of more Tourist Police Unit and the initiation of active Beach Management Programme.
Beach operator’s relocation programme
The problem of beach operators has been there for quite sometimes now. The government and stakeholders have made considerable efforts to relocate the beach operators by providing alternative trading areas, but funds and capital have been the biggest impediment for its success. it is envisaged that successful implementation of the project will positively reflect the image of Kenya as a proffered tourist destination since harassment on the beaches will be eradicated and sense of safety and security will prevail.
Health and sanitation
Several health concerns in tourism such as malaria outbreak in coast province,hiv/aids pandemic, infection resulting from poor sanitary conditions and from limited sewerage treatment at the coast, poor and inadequate waste collection and disposal, among others. The removal of all unauthorized kiosks and food venders near the hotels and a long the beach access roads to avoid cholera and typhoid outbreaks which can directly and indirectly affect the tourism industry.
The environmental and waste management guidelines should be enacted and forced .this should cater for the future and present environmental needs and impact towards the general expectation of the tourists and the locals a like.
Kenya’s image a broad
Kenya has been described as a hub of international press which is not positive for our image abroad
Tourist activities have been concentrated in few areas and enjoying few attractions, coast and a few parks. There is a need to diversify tourist activities to all potential areas in the country .creation of departments to work on diversification of new tourist activities as well as promoting tourism in near areas will be the only way of survival as tourists expect variety and value for their money.
Concentration on traditional markets of Germany, UK, Switzerland, France , Italy, USA and Scandinavian countries, have caused serious problems of seasonality , to counter this, the department together with Kenya tourist board are diversifying to other areas of Asia and middle east. Ought issues in planning the towns as the government cat interfere with private property
STRATEGIES OF TOURISM MANAGEMENT
The tourism department in collaboration with other government departments and key stakeholders within the industry are responsible for the overall direction of the tourism industry. The departmental mission statement in this respect to achieving this goal includes:
1. To develop tourism as the vital sector of the economy
2. To maximize earnings from the tourism sector of overall national development
3. To create employment and thus alleviate poverty
4. To encourage conservation of flora and fauna as well as the cultural heritage for future generations and finally, to improve the quality of service offered by the tourism industry. Therefore The Kenya Wildlife Services should be fully responsible for the protection, conservation and management of wildlife in the coast. KWS should ensure full control of marine and terrestrial parks and reserves. KWS should intensify its collaboration with KMFRI in research and monitoring activities within the marine parks and reserves. KWS which also runs the Naivasha Wildlife Management and Fisheries Training Institute should provide training to low and middle level personnel at a cheap cost.. The Marine National Parks and Reserves division of KWS is responsible for its marine science programmes. Whereby There are five scientists working in marine sciences related fields including Biology/Biological Oceanography, Marine Ecology, Fisheries and Biodiversity. KWS should facilitate more collaborative research with KMFRI on biodiversity and pollution assessment not only in Mombasa and Kisite Mpunguti Marine Parks but also in other small towns like kilifi and Malindi.
The National Museums of Kenya has several programmes with marine science component. These include the Biodiversity Programme, Ornithology and the Coastal Archaeology Programme. The Biodiversity Centre of the National Museums of Kenya should be active to pursue the national and regional initiatives on biodiversity conservation.
At the national level the centre is should continue developing a research and action programme aimed at developing, gathering, storing, analysing and disseminating information required for the sustainable conservation of biological resources. The government should finance the department Within the Centre, to be responsible for issues pertaining to marine biodiversity to achieve the general aim of this department which is to gather, store and disseminate information on Kenyan marine life with a view to preserving and protecting the biodiversity.
The programme to incorporate the element of public education and awareness to let the public know the benefits the sea provides through its products or ecological services and therefore share in the responsibility for conserving marine biodiversity.
NMK is currently undertaking a survey of birds in the coastal area in collaboration with KMFRI.
There are four personnel working in marine science related fields including marine biodiversity, marine ecology, fisheries and wetlands programmes. Intensive, up to date training should be offered to the officers. New methods of research should be embraced or else the vision 2030 will be far from a reality.
Kenya Forestry Research Institute should undertake research to maintain the indegenious species trees, for example the acacia and baobab.
The Institute should undertakes all aspects of Forestry Research in Kenya including mangroves.
East African Wildlife Society (EAWLS)
EAWS was formed in 1961 by amalgamating the Wildlife Societies of Kenya and Tanzania and the Uganda Wildlife Conservationists. Its main objective is to safeguard the Wildlife and its habitats in all forms as a regional and international resource. It’s a non-profit organisation and has played a leading role in promoting conservation and sustainable use of wildlife and the environment throughout East Africa. To this end the Society has invested over US$ 2 million in over 1,000 environmental, wildlife and conservation education projects, several of which concern the marine environment.
The Society publishes a bimonthly newsletter ‘Swara’ and the ‘African Journal of Ecology’.
East Africa Natural History Society
The Society was founded in 1909 as an amateur naturalist society. The society founded a museum, library and a journal. The library and museum were transferred to the government around 1930.
The society currently has over 1000 members (both locally and overseas). Its publications include: Journal of East African Natural History; Bulletin; Ballya (on succulent plants); Scopus (on orinthology); Kenya Birds
The society’s subcommittees include the Kenya Wetlands Working Group and the Orinthological Steering Committee.
Society for Protection of Environment in Kenya (SPEK)
SPEK is an environment and development oriented non-governmental organisation with two main objectives that define its mandate:
(i) To increase the level of awareness of the community on environmental issues,
(ii) To promote activities aimed at sustainable use of local resources.
The programmes should be fully suppoted to fulfil these objectives in the coast region. The first addresses environmental education and targets youth, resource users, women and industry. More than 500 people have benefitted from the programme which is implemented through demonstrations, workshops and seminars.
The second programme provides support to village based sustainable activities. Initial work began by identifying the protected areas from where the local community can derive greater benefits without adopting destructive methods. Such areas include mangrove forests and fishing areas.
SPEK has been particularly active in mangrove conservation where it spear headed the formation of a youth group called ‘Friends of Mangroves’ which organizes on Annual Marine Conservation Youth Conference.
The group has also undertaken a mangrove reafforestation project at the Kibarani dump site in conjunction with KMFRI, KWS, Forestry Department, CDA and the Mombasa District Environment Office.
Coral Reef Conservation Project (CRCP)
CRCP is a project of the Wildlife Conservation Society with the following objectives:
(i) To determine if localised species extinction of fin fish and other coral reef species assemblages (i.e coral and molluscs) are occurring on heavily fished reefs due to over-fishing and/or high sea urchin population densities;
(ii) To determine the effect of an increase in sea urchin populations on the benthic productivity and species composition of the coral reef and its possible impact on commercial fisheries yields;
(iii) To determine rates and processes of coral reef recovery from a sea urchin dominated to a fish dominated reef in relation to coral reef management practices.
The project works closely with the Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute (KMFRI) and the Kenya Wildlife Services (KWS) and also organises training programmes in coral reef ecology and monitoring techniques for scientists from the Western Indian Ocean region.
Mombasa and Coast Tourist Association
MCTA is a lobby group bringing together leading players in the tourist industry along the coast, including hoteliers and tour operators. The association has been actively involved in conservation issues and is participating in the Mombasa Beach Management Programme. The association has also organised a “Save the Bahari Campaign” in collaboration with UNEP to increase public awareness of the marine environmental conservation issues.
In conclusion, Tourism will be a leading sector in achieving the goals of the Vision 2030. Kenya has the potential of meet her goals if the above strategies are observed.
AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY IN THE COAST PROVINCE
Most of the land in the coastal area is of low agricultural potential. The following agricultural products are important in the coastal region: horticultural products particularly vegetables and tropical fruits; sisal; cotton; coconuts; cashew nuts and bixa. A cashew nut factory was established at Kilifi in the north coast and a bixa factory in the south coast. There is also substantial livestock production including poultry, beef, milk and mutton in the region. The establishment of “settlement schemes” in the coastal region (Lake Kenyatta, Hindi/Magogoni, Magarini and Witu settlement schemes) has led to increase in agricultural production in the region, especially for cotton and horticultural products.
There are approximately 54,000 hectares of mangrove forests in Kenya. They provide the local community with fuel wood, timber for house construction, fences and furniture. Mangrove forests are protected by Gazette notice 174 of May 20, 1964 and for such areas to be converted to other use there has to be a degazettement.
Most rural households in the region engage in diverse agricultural and non-agricultural activities. Maize, cassava and cowpea are the staple foods grown in the area, although it is estimated that own-production accounts for less than half of the amount of these staples consumed by the majority of households. The region is thus a food deficit area that imports staple foods from other parts of the country. Coconut palms and cashew trees provide important sources of cash income for many rural households; oranges and mangoes are widely produced and sold, and bixa is a common cash crop in Kwale District. In the CL zones, cattle are owned by about 20% of rural households whereas ownership of goats and sheep is more common. Most households also raise poultry for home consumption.
Cashew nut and bixa factories have however not fared very well due to poor production of the two crops. There was closure of the Ramisi sugar factory which operated at Ramisi in the south coast which led to the total collapse of sugarcane farming in the coastal region. The inadequate use of farm inputs like fertilisers has contributed to the poor performance of the agricultural sector in the coastal area.
Most farmers in the coast province are squatters. Therefore they cannot fully engage in longterm projects of farming.
Floods and drought are common disasters in the province.
In recent years mangrove forests have been cleared to make way for agriculture, fish ponds, prawn farms, salt pans, residential houses, industries or dump sites. The ban on export of mangroves poles was lifted in 1996. There are fears that this move could exert more pressureon mangrove forests.
Fisheries and Aquaculture
Marine fisheries are an important source of protein for coastal populations. The main fishery along the Kenya coast is still artisanal. Most of the fishing is done in the creeks, on the reefs and in shallow inshore waters
There are several aquaculture activities along the coast of Kenya, including prawn farming in Malindi-Ngomeni area, artemia culture, tilapia farming at Baobab Farm Ltd. in Mombasa, and
an oyster culture project run by the Shirazi women’s group in Gazi with support from the Belgian Government through the Coast Development Authority. The pilot study for this project was done by Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute (KMFRI) within the framework of the Kenya Belgium Project in Marine Sciences.
While there has been a big increase in quantity and value of freshwater fish landed in Kenya, the marine fisheries sector has continued to perform poorly due to inability to fully exploit the resources. This has been attributed to high cost of credit, in adequate outlets and inefficient technology. The lack of adequate capacity to effectively utilize the Exclusive Economic Zone in the Indian Ocean and the inefficiency in transforming semiprocessed fish products to standard finished output continue to affect the performance of the sector negatively.
The annual landing for 1995 was only 5300 metric tonnes for marine fish and 660 metric tones for crustaceans. This is very low compared to over 195,000 metric tonnes for freshwater fish Approximately 80 percent of these are from reef and shallow coastal waters and 18 percent from offshore trawlers. Nearshore fisheries are at or near maximum sustainable yields, while offshore areas are considered under-exploited.
Therefore The Fisheries Department should be fully responsible for development, management, exploitation and conservation of fisheries. This can be done through provision of extension and training services, conducting research and surveys; promotion of co-operation among fishermen, promotion of arrangement for orderly marketing of fish; providing infrastructure facilities and stocking waters with fish and supplying fish for stocking. The Department should also responsible for licensing fishing vessels, fish processors, fish dealers.
The National Environment Secretariat within the Ministry is the co-ordinating body for matters related to the environment. There are plans to create a council to replace NES. Unlike NES, the council will have powers to enforce legislation for the protection of the environment.
The Forestry Department is responsible for development and management of Kenya forest including the mangrove forests.
The National Council for Science and Technology, National Research Institutes, and the
Polytechnics and Technical Training Institutes fall under this Ministry.
The National Council for Science and Technology is the machinery for making available to the government advice upon all matters relating to scientific and technological activities and research necessary for development. NCST also co-ordinates research undertaken in the country. The Council has four advisory research committees concerned with: agricultural sciences; medical sciences; industrial sciences; and natural sciences. Marine sciences is the responsibility of the natural sciences advisory committee of the Council.
Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute undertake all aspects of aquatic research including biological, physical and chemical oceanography, pollution, fisheries, aquaculture, fishing technology and fish processing. The Institute is also the advisory body for the government on all matters related to aquatic sciences.
Kenya Forestry Research Institute undertakes forestry research including work on mangrove forests.
Kenya has five public Universities: University of Nairobi, Kenyatta University, Moi University,
Egerton University and Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. Each of these
Universities has courses covering some aspects of marine sciences in their programmes
Farmers should be given loans to establish farming projects, extension officers should be employed at least two in every district.
The law of settling all people, fairly should be enacted otherwise it will be hard to meet the goals of the vision 2030.
3.MINING, TRADE AND INDUSTRY IN THE COASTAL REGION
Salt can be considered as the most widespread mineral in Eastern Africa and its recovery from the sea is a comparatively simple process given certain environmental conditions. The location of solar saltworks is controlled by the rainfall regime and the occurrence of suitable impermeable soils. These conditions occur from Ngomeni northwards to the Lamu area. Extensive saltworks have been established at the Gongoni-Fundi Is area and Kurawa. The total area dedicated to salt production is over 5,000 hectares that yield an average of over 170,000 tonnes of salt annually.
The method of salt production utilised by the five established companies is very much the same throughout the area. Seawater is introduced into the ponds which are run in series. Slight variations may occur in the method of filling the ponds which utilize tidal energy. In the first pond, undesirable salts of low solubility are removed and the water then flows into concentration, evaporation and crystallization ponds. Crystallized salt is gathered from the ponds, processed and taken to market.
While it is cheaper and more rational to utilize solar energy to evaporate water naturally, fires driven by fuel wood are sometimes still used to boil off the water and recover the salt. This method of salt production, rarely used nowadays, was a common and wasteful use of mangrove and other timbers that were used for fuel.
Seven tonnes of wood were used to produce a tonne of salt.
LIMESTONE AND CEMENT
Limestone deposits are extensive along the coastal zone from the Tanzania border to the Malindi area. The resource is very abundant, forming a 4-8km wide band, some 70m thick, running parallel to the coast. North of Malindi, older limestone units occur further inland but only a few exposures of isolated limestone occur on the coast between Malindi and the Lamu area. North of Lamu and the islands, limestone units occur once more parallel to the coastal zone, however, these are not well mapped. Exploitation of the limestone is widespread and is governed by local variation in the limestone texture, composition and demand for the material.
In the Bamburi area north of Mombasa, limestone is used for cement manufacture and in Tiwi for lime manufacture. However, all along the coast limestone is being exploited for building stone.
Coral limestone, the basic raw material for cement production, is excavated in shallow, heavily mechanised, opencast mines adjacent to the factory. Due to seawater intrusion, exploitation is limited to the upper levels of the limestone layer but the quarries are expected to last for many years. Weathered shale and iron ore are also required as secondary raw materials for the production of cement. The former is available in large quantities in the Mombasa area and is mined in open pits near Bamburi; while iron ore is obtained from Kilifi. Pozzolana and gypsum, also needed for the process albeit in smaller quantities, are mined near Kilifi or imported. Cement production at Bamburi was initiated in the early 1950's and, together with a number of related downstream activities; it is recognized today as one of the major industries on the Kenya coast. The Cement industry employs over 700 workers directly and many more indirectly through its need for raw material transport, servicing, etc. Average cement production is over 1.2 million tonnes per year and although the local building industry continues to provide a local market for the product, a significant proportion of the production is exported.
Average cement production is over 1.2 million tonnes per year and although the local building industry continues to provide a local market for the product, a significant proportion of the production is exported.
Coal and heavy fuel oil, the other important ingredients for cement manufacture, are imported.
Limestone and manufacturing of cement has led to environmental degradation; large pieces of land remain unused in the quarried places.
Large plantations of Casuarina equisetifolia have been planted on these dry tracts, some are still being exploited by the excavating machines, others bare and abandoned awaiting rehabilitation.
For 20 years the Company has implemented a rehabilitation policy which has turned barren, dusty, disused quarry into dense forest, secretive trails and cool lakes. The reclamation comprises an ecological process meticulously planned and based on an understanding of food chains and symbiotic relationships. The achievement is made all the more impressive by the fact that no artificial pesticide, fertilizer or other chemical has ever been used at Bamburi.
The South Quarry is nowadays known as the Bamburi Nature Trail where orphaned animals ranging from a porcupine to a hippopotamus are given natural surroundings to thrive and help educate and inform visitors. The Baobab Farm Ltd integrated aquaculture system is another success story. Through judicious water use and reuse, the system produces tilapia, catfish, prawns, crocodiles, rice, other vegetables and an income from tourism.
While generating an income is an important consideration, Bamburi also reinvests some of that income into various aspects of research and conservation such as - how to increase tilapia yield, how to convert the fish farm’s sludge into biogas to be used as fuel, establishing a Bamburi kaya that will be of value to scientists, medicine and the surrounding communities, etc. The Bamburi enterprise is an excellent example of how ecological principles can be applied to obtain sustainable resource use for economic advantage.
It is necessary for more measures of controlling pollution to be considered. Dust and explosives are dangerous for health, so extraction should be done with care.
Besides electricity, coal and petroleum other sources of energy should be developed, for example nuclear energy.
Railway system should serve the coast province, especially in transporting bulky good. Therefore there is need to build more railway lines.
Several mineral occurrences and shows have been recognised along the coastal zone. Some of the mineral occurrences are of economic significance and a few are being exploited. Mineralization at Murima hill in Kwale district comprises of an association of Pyrochlore, Apatite, Galena, Iron ore and Manganese. Of these, Pyrochlore appears to have the highest potential.
The Vitengeni deposits in Kilifi District are being exploited for Barytes, with Galena as a by-product. However, at Kinangoni, Galena is the dominant mineral with Barytes and Silver forming the subsidiary minerals. Gypsum is mined from sedimentary deposits at Roka in Kilifi District. Other Gypsum deposits of possible economic significance have been discovered in Tana River District. At Jaribuni in Kilifi District, iron ore is being mined to supply the cement factory at Bamburi.
Sand for building is mined in many localities along the coastal zone. Among the most important sites are Tiwi in Kwale District, Mazeras which supplies Mombasa and Ngomeni for the Malindi area. Silica sands for glass manufacture are obtained from deposits in Arabuko-Sokoke and Msambweni. Clay is mined for brick works in the Port Reitz area of Mombasa.
Most miners are small scale based because they have limited capital, they donot have a reliable market and they lack the modern technology in mining.
Most local mimners are not protected by the government. So there is even un licensed mining.
Local miners should be financed by the government through various microfinance institutions.
The government should begin allocating a budget for mining industry or else the no heavy industries can develop in Kenya. Reforms on the mining act should be reviewed.
The miners should form their corporative society, which will facilitate in the production and marketing of the minerals.
The Kenyan coast has played an important role in trade and communication in Eastern Africa from the time merchants from Arabia sailed to the area over 2000 years ago in search of gold, spices, ivory and other goods. There is evidence of settlements and trading centres built by them as early as the seventh century. The Portuguese also established trading posts along the coast from around 1498. Many settlements have retained prominent facets of Arab culture, which has been progressively integrated with aspects of African, Asian, and European culture. The coastal culture has provided the country with its national language - Kiswahili. Many of the earlier trading centres became important urban centres. These include: Mombasa, Malindi and Lamu among others.
Ports and Harbours
The second major economic resource in the Kenyan coast, after tourism is the Kilindini harbor in Mombasa. It derives its viability from its strategic position as a natural harbour and the extensive and reasonably productive hinterland covering: Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda, Burundi and parts of Tanzania, Zaire and Sudan. The port is managed by the Kenya Ports Authority.
The number of ocean going ships entering Kenya Ports reached a high point of 1755 in 1989, and there after began declining to a low point of 1466 ships in 1992. There has been a slight recovery to 1514 ships in 1994. Similarly the number of sailing ships has declined from 164 in 1989 to
87 in 1994 (Table 11.1)
The number of passengers going through the Mombasa Port reached an all time high of over 30,000 in 1991 and declined drastically to 9463 in 1994. Cargo handled at the Mombasa Port has increased steadily from 6,672,000 metric tonnes in 1988 to 8,127,000 metric tonnes in 1994
The location of the port has attracted many industries to Mombasa. Plans to develop Export
Processing Zones at Kipevu and Kokotoni, where investors will receive tax incentives so as to encourage them to increase production for the export market, will provide further impetus to the development of the manufacturing sector.
The main industries include cement manufacture, petroleum refinery and motor vehicle assembly. Listed before are some of the industries located in the coastal region (mainly
Mombasa and Kilifi): food and beverages; textiles; timber/wood; printing and publishing; chemical industries; cement lime and plaster; manufacturing of building and construction materials; metal industry; electrical machinery, appliances and supplies; ship building and repair; assembly of motor vehicles; and electricity generation.
COASTAL GEOMORPHOLOGY WATER RESOURCE AND MARINE ECOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
Coastal Geomorphology and Oceanography
The coastal belt of Kenya may be divided into four physiographical units which are almost parallel to one another. These are from the coast to inland; the coastal plain; the foot plateau; the coastal range and the Nyika. The width of the coastal plain varies between 4km in the south to 40km in the north and is generally under 50 metres altitude. The coastal plain to the south of Malindi is occupied by recently formed reef limestone overlaid by sands and clays behind the north-south trending fossil reef limestone with lagoon deposits occupying the low-lying and back reef areas. In the northern sector the Malindi-Mambrui area is dominated by deltaic deposits of sand, silt and clay and windblown deposits that form the prominent dunes which lie parallel to the coastal zone. Another dominant feature in the northern sector is the remnant topography associated with the geological shifting of the Tana River mouth between Lamu and Mambrui. It is thought that this is related to the barrier island system observed between Mambrui and the Somali border. Offshore there is evidence of major rivers draining into the Indian Ocean in the Lamu area which are now represented by fossil underwater deltaic feature. The foot plateau coincides with the Jurassic shales and limestones and is partly covered by Pliocene sands. The foot plateau was probably a late Tertiary peneplain. Significant peaks in the coastal range include: Jambo (460m), Shimba (440m) and Mwele (300m) to the south of Mombasa; and Jidana (300m), Senawe (340m) and Mangea (510m) to the north.
Kenya has a narrow continental shelf with depths dropping below 200 metres within less than
4km in most places. However, the shelf widens significantly at the mouths of rivers Tana and Sabaki, exceeding 15km off the northern end of Ungwana Bay.